The Life of Steven Penfield
Historic Preservation is an integral component of Penfield’s Land Use Plan and all exterior changes affecting designated landmarks or properties located within Historic Districts require approval by the Historic Preservation Board.
In 1924, Penfield set sail for Spain to study modern scientific techniques used by Santiago Ramon y Cajal to stain brain cells for microscopic examination.
Early Life and Education
Penfield graduated Princeton with an indecision about majoring in philosophy after initially vowing not to follow in his father’s footsteps and study medicine instead, until reading William James’ Principles of Psychology changed his mind. Saving up money, he began saving and studying before eventually winning a Rhodes Scholarship.
He left for Oxford where he still had one year remaining on his scholarship, where he was accepted to Merton College but needed to pass their Greek entrance exam as well as their own entrance exam for admission despite never studying Greek before.
Penfield pioneered numerous surgical techniques. He created the Montreal Procedure, which reduced brain scarring risks while showing remarkable success for epilepsy patients. Furthermore, he stimulated various layers of the brain with electrical probes in order to study where specific functions existed within it.
Professionally, he has held various roles within golf including serving as head golf pro at multiple clubs. In his tenure he has won multiple awards and gained prominence for his expertise in course development. Additionally, he holds the PGA Master Golf Professional designation and received the New Patriot Award which recognizes West New York PGA professionals who demonstrate patriotism through daily golf activities at country club levels.
Penfield faculty present their research at national and international conferences. Within the counseling program, students and professors alike presented at events such as the American Board of Counselor Education National Counselor Education Conference; National Youth at Risk Conference; Southeastern Expressive Therapies Conference; and Mercer National Vocational Rehabilitation Meeting.
Keitel appeared in several films including Little Nicky, U-571 and National Treasure. Furthermore, she worked alongside director Jane Campion again for Holy Smoke!.
Achievement and Honors
Penfield College hosts many national and regional conferences each year in addition to its Narrative Showcase. For example, its graduate counseling programs hold accreditation by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs; additionally this year students in its school and clinical mental health counseling programs achieved a 100 percent first-time pass rate on the Comprehensive Professional Counselor Examination.
Penfield was mesmerized by Spanish researchers led by Nobel Prize winner Santiago Ramon y Cajal who were successful in staining brain cells so they could be observed under a microscope, inspiring him to develop modern neurosurgery techniques.
Penfield has also made strides to build community involvement through a seven-year research project to document African-American history in coastal Georgia, which will then be made accessible to a wider public audience.
Penfield used his Merton College vacation in 1916 to volunteer with the Red Cross in France. While returning home, however, his ship was torpedoed by a German submarine and Penfield sustained serious leg injuries that required hospitalization.
After returning to Merton in 1919-1920, he focused much of his energy and attention on medical education and research. He studied under Boston-based lecturer Otfrid Foerster before traveling across Europe to work alongside Pio del Rio Hortega.
Penfield was intrigued by Santiago Ramon y Cajal’s discovery of staining cells to study brain structures more precisely. Penfield applied this discovery on two patients: one died; and two had tumors. Penfield asked their families for permission to extract both brains, hoping to learn from each one.